Old Red Sandstone

The Old Red Sandstone is a large group of rocks of late Silurian and Devonian age. They were formed in a semi-arid desert environment which has given them their conspicuous red colouring through the intense weathering of iron-bearing minerals. Nevertheless, they are highly variable in outcrop with red, green, purple or brown colourings, coexisting in […]

Blocky Bishops Frome Limestone, Black Bush Farm

Bishop’s Frome Limestone

January 1, 201312:00 pmMay 26, 2016 9:06 am

A calcrete, formed within the soil horizon during the Devonian, this rubbly limestone occurs at the boundary between the Raglan Mudstone and St Maughans Sandstone and is not widely used for building. Some use is made in Bishop’s Frome but generally it has been exploited for lime-burning. It also forms an important source for tufa […]

St Maughans Sandstone

January 1, 201312:00 pmMay 26, 2016 9:11 am

Lying stratigraphically above the Bishops Frome Limestone is the Early Devonian St Maughans Formation. This unit underlies the Bromyard Plateau of northeastern Herefordshire, the tops of the ‘cornstone’ hills to the north-west of Hereford, the area to the west of the Golden Valley (and extending up onto the flanks of the Black Mountains), and a […]

Close-up of Cradley Stone ashlar

Cradley Stone

January 1, 201312:00 pmMay 26, 2016 9:02 am

A green-grey variety of St Maughans Sandstone quarried in the Ridgeway Cross area and used extensively in Malvern. It can be difficult to distinguish from the Halesowen Formation which is also occasionally used in the area. Cradley Stone lacks the iron nodules sometimes seen in Carboniferous Sandstones. Browse sites on the database using Cradley Stone […]

Cornstone slab in a drystone wall, Linton Lane, Bromyard. The pale grey and yellow pebbles are fragments of calcretes, ripped up and redeposited by flash floods.


January 1, 201312:00 pmMay 26, 2016 9:11 am

A local term for what is termed an intraformational conglomerate (a rock mostly made from pebbles which have been eroded from near the area they are deposited). These are distinctive rocks common within the Old Red Sandstone. They were formed by flash floods ripping up partially solidified mud banks in seasonal rivers and depositing them […]

te quarters, Goodrich Castle


January 1, 201312:00 pmMay 26, 2016 9:01 am

Medium to coarse sandstones occasionally with layers of quartz pebbles which outcrops most of the South-east corner of Herefordshire. Compared to the underlying Raglan Mudstone and St Maughans Formations the Brownstones are both more dominated by sandstones and more uniform in appearance. Deep brown or even purple coloured, the occurrence of bands and spots of […]

Ross Stone (Brownstones Formation) - Royal Hotel, Ross-on-Wye

Ross Stone

January 1, 201312:00 pmMay 26, 2016 9:02 am

Quarried from the river cliff at Ross-on-Wye, ‘Ross Stone’ is a soft, deep chocolate brown-coloured, medium-grained sandstone from the Brownstones Formation. Green-grey reduction spots and stripes in the rock are very common and pebbles of quartz or mud intraclasts are often present. The sandstone is used extensively in the older buildings of Ross-on-Wye, as well […]

Outcrop of Quartz Conglomerate Formation , Coppett Hill (courtesy John Stocks)

Quartz Conglomerate

January 1, 201312:00 pmMay 26, 2016 9:07 am

Coarse conglomerates and red sandstones with rounded pebbles of quartz and other lithologies. Likely used in some buildings in Goodrich although difficult to distinguish from a similar layer in the Brownstones which outcrops in Goodrich Castle moat. Also used in some local buildings on Penyard Hill above Ross. Notable use was made of the Quartz […]

Tintern Abbey interior

Tintern Sandstone

January 1, 201312:00 pmMay 26, 2016 9:07 am

Green-grey to buff or pinkish sandstone. Not widely used for building and occurs only in the southern tip of Herefordshire around Goodrich. More extensively used in the Forest of Dean. Browse the database for sites using Tintern Sandstone ->